History of Corona

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Pre-Contact: 10,000 years ago - 1769

NAT-aaa-073_1The history of Corona pre-dates the founding of the town in 1886. The original inhabitants of this region were the Luiseño (or Payomkowishum) and Gabrielino (or Tongva) Indians. Both groups were hunter-gatherers with well established villages in the Corona area, the Gabrielinos to the west near the Santa Ana River where Prado Dam is today and the Luiseños farther south in Temescal Canyon, Lake Elsinore and Temecula areas near natural water resources. jarThe future of these California Indians was forever altered when Spain colonized California in 1769 and later established the San Luis Rey and San Gabriel Missions.The introduction of new diseases and the base treatment of the indigenous population at the hands of the padres resulted in a sharp population decline among the California Indians between 1769 and 1821.
 
 

Alta California: 1769 - 1851

In 1769, Portola’s expedition through Alta California where Padre Junipero Serra and Spanish soldier Jose Yorba both would leave their mark on California. Padre Serra established the Franciscan Missions. Jose Yorba left the Spanish Army in 1797 and returned to California in 1800. 
In 1801, Yorba would be rewarded for his service to Spain with a large land grant along the Santa Ana River.

Jose Yorba’s youngest son, Bernardo, would receive a land grant from the Mexican government in 1825. The 14,000 acres granted to Bernardo lay just east of his father’s Spanish land grant. Later Bernardo acquired an additional 10,000 acres from Governor Jose Figueroa. With this addition, Bernardo Yorba’s property encompassed present day Corona. The two year Mexican-American War came to an end in 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The treaty specified the cession of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico to the United States. In 1851, California became the 31st state.
 

South Riverside: 1851 - 1896

 
 PER-aaa-275  Adolph-Rimpau  George-Joy  Arthur-Samuelson-Garretson  Samuel-Merrill

R.B. Taylor

Adolph Rimpau

George L. Joy

A.S. Garretson

Samuel Merrill

 
In 1886 Robert B. Taylor, Adolph Rimpau, George L. Joy, A.S. Garretson, and Samuel Merrill purchased 12,000 acres of land from the Yorba family in what was then southwestern San Bernardino County. The South Riverside Land & Water Company was formed to develop the newly acquired land. The company quickly made arrangements to establish a railroad depot, irrigation systems were created to bring water to the arid land and it introduced the building blocks of the citrus industry to their new town, South Riverside.
 
"On my return trip to Sioux City...I stopped at Omaha and learned while there that the city was spending large sums of money to secure a grand boulevard about the city. I then and there decided to lay out a grand boulevard in a perfect circle around the proposed townsite on the Company lands and later the matter was taken up with Mr. Kellogg and the survey for the circle was made..."
~R.B. Taylor,
Letter to Capt. Merriam, 1913

 

 

KelloggDuring this period R.B. Taylor contracted with well known civil engineer H.C. Kellogg to create the boulevard and streets that would later distinguish South Riverside from any other city in California. Kellogg took Taylor's vision of a "grand" circular boulevard and designed a series of grid-like streets enclosed by the boulevard. With the design of the town approved by the Company the founders set out to name each street. According to Emma "Ocie" Taylor Songer, R.B. Taylor's daughter, the streets of South Riverside were named in one evening in the Pasadena office of A.S. Garretson. As Ocie played with her dolls her father and his partners nominated, debated and finally agreed on the names for all the original streets.  mainst1890A thriving and profitable citrus industry soon emerged with grapefruit, orange, and lemon fruits providing the backbone of the local economy.
 

 

 

Early Corona: 1896 - 1941

The Corona of the past was a small rural community known as South Riverside. On July 13, 1896, the citizens of South Riverside voted to incorporate the town into the newly developed Riverside County. When citizens incorporated the new city, they sought to carve their own identity by changing the name to Corona. The citizens of Corona were mostly of English and Irish descent, but Mexicans and Italians soon came seeking work in the citrus fields. Early accounts reflect a segregated society in which Hispanics, Italians and the two or three black families in town were forced to live in designated areas and their children had to attend the same minority school regardless of their address.

 

 

Corona Road Races

"Corona is the talk of the whole world and thousands will see the greatest speed demons smash all records Tuesday."

~Corona Courier,
September 4, 1913

 
1913-Road-Race-Poster
 
The first race held on September 9, 1913 offered $10,000 in prizes, one of the largest purses offered in auto racing. Racing legends Earl Cooper, Teddy Tetzlaff, Barney Oldfield, Eddie Rickenbacker and Bob Burman were some of the drivers who participated in the first road race. In 1913 three separate races were held – Light Car Race (37 laps ~ 102 miles), Heavy Car Race (91 laps ~ 251 miles) and the Free-For-All Race (109 laps ~ 301 miles). The competition for the Free-For-All Race was fierce as the prize for 1st Place was over $5000 and a $1000 bonus was offered for a new world’s record. It was Earl Cooper who earned First Place in the Free-For-All.
 
 
Road-Race-1914With the success of Corona’s 1913 Road Race, plans for a second road race were started immediately. The Corona Racing Association scheduled the event for Thanksgiving Day, November 26, 1914 and began preparing by permanently paving Grand Boulevard and offering advanced ticket sales. The Association also added certain safety measures that would ensure that spectators & participants remained safe - a five foot fence was built around the outside of the boulevard and bridges were constructed over the street which would allow spectators to view the race while preventing them from stepping onto the track during the race. 

 
The 109 lap race included 19 of racing’s finest drivers including grand-blvd-racePlans for a third road race were delayed until 1916 and promoters decided to shift the race from the fall to the spring. On April 8, 1916, the day of the race, Corona experienced record breaking high temperatures. Of the twelve cars & drivers that qualified for the third Corona Road Race, only five completed the race. The weather wreaked havoc on the cars, vehicles overheated and there were a number of tire blowouts during the race. Tragedy struck during Bob Burman's 97th lap, his Peugeot veered off the track and into spectators. The accident killed Burman, his mechanic Erick Schrader and security guard William Speer of Corona. A short time later Eddie O'Donnell crossed the finish line in his Duesenberg and took first place. 1916odonnell
 
Despite the popularity of the events, they were not financially successful, and after the death of three men in 1916's Road Race, the future of Corona Road Races on Grand Boulevard was sealed. Citizens had long been complaining about the noise, flying wheels, dangerous speeds and general havoc wrought by outsiders each year. Those complaints, combined with Burman's tragic accident, left the promoters no choice but to cancel plans for any future races.

 

 

Lemon Capital of the World

"During April there were 489 packers and 650 pickers employed in packing houses and groves of Corona. Practically one-fourth of our population is engaged in the caring for our citrus interests."
~Corona Courier,
May 14, 1915
 
Early investors and developers in the citrus industry included Ethan Allen Chase, John Flagler, A.F. Call, S.B. Hampton and W.H. Jameson (son-in-law of founder George Joy). Though the soil was fit for citrus and there was funding to establish groves and packing houses, the growers lacked any agricultural experience which initially hindered the fledgling industry. To solve the problem growers advertised for experienced citrus workers in Italy where there was a long history of successful citrus cultivation. The infusion of new ideas and experience that arrived with the Italian workers provided the much needed boost to Corona’s citrus industry. Field workers and packers were needed to make a true success of Corona’s citrus industry. The majority of the agricultural labor force was composed of Mexican and later Mexican-American workers, who worked around the clock to collect, prepare and ship out citrus fruits and their by-products.

exchange1915
By the time Corona hosted its third road race, it had already established itself as the “Lemon Capital of the World”. Lemon production was so successful that the Exchange By-Products Company was developed to research and produce commercial products from lower grade lemons and lemons that did not sell at market. The plant could handle 1,000 tons of lemons per day, employed 250 people, and operated 24 hours a day. The main products produced at the plant were citric acid, sodium citrate, lemon juice, pectin, and lemon oil. In 1921 the By-Products plant would change its name to the Exchange Lemon Products Company, indicating the facilities focus on research and products derived from the lemon. It was in 1958 that the Exchange merged with Sunkist and formed the Lemon Products Division for Sunkist Growers.

 

Years of Change: 1941 - 1980

Social and political change was slow to come in Corona. During World War II, the manager of municipal plunge (public pool at City Park), Nettie Whitcomb integrated the facility. Prior to December 27, 1943, Hispanics were restricted to using the pool on Mondays, when the pool was drained and cleaned. After the death of Joe Dominguez, a former student of Ms. Whitcomb's, she destroyed the "For the White Race Only" sign and opened to pool to the entire community.  Not welcome in the white veteran's group, Hispanic soldiers coming home from World War II had to form their own. The American Legion - Joe Dominguez Post 742 was created to serve Corona's returning Hispanic veterans.

During the 1950s, the first Hispanics were elected to both the School Board and the City Council. By the sixties, the first Chinese and Japanese families came to town; in earlier years Asians were not allowed to own or even rent property in Corona. Between 1967 and 1969 segregation within the Corona Unified School District ended. Thus, the seeds of Corona's dynamically diverse community had been planted, even though the overall population continued to grow slowly.

 

Growth & Urban Development: 1980 - present

As citrus gave way to urban development in the 1980s, the population of Corona exploded - up 110% from 1980 to 1989 - bringing a diverse influx of peoples. The encroachment of suburban Corona, shifting of the agricultural industry to Central California and out-dated facilities and equipment lead Sunkist to close the plant in 1982. According to the 1990 census, Corona's African-American population grew by 549% between 1980 and 1990. Similarly, the Asian-American population expanded by a phenomenal 1,195%. Even the Hispanic population, which had always been a significantly large part of Corona grew 122%, adding new immigrants from El Salvador and Colombia, as well as Hispanics from other parts of California. The same decade brought a 70% growth rate in the Native American population. All of these people brought new diversity to the city. Since then, Corona's overall population growth has slowed to 36.4% - a pace that still makes Corona one of the fastest growing communities in the state, and now a city with over 160,000 people.

 

 

Timeline
 

1769 Spain colonizes Alta California  
1796 Mission San Luis Rey de Fracias is established   

1821 Mexico gains independence from Spain  
1833 Mission San Luis Rey is secularized  
1846 April 25, the Mexican-American War begins  
1848 February 2, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the Mexican-American War  
1850 September 9, California becomes the 31st state  
1857 Tin is discovered in Temescal Canyon   

tinmine

1886 R.B. Taylor, Adolph Rimpau, George L. Joy, A.S. Garretson, & Samuel Merrill, purchase 12,000 acres of land and develop the community South Riverside.   

southriversidemap

1887 South Riverside Bee, the town’s first newspaper begins circulation;

First citrus grove is planted in South Riverside by Patrick Harrington
 
1888 Over 150 acres of citrus groves have been planted in South Riverside   

groves

1889 South Riverside's first school, Lincoln,is built on the site of what is now Victoria Park.   

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1891 April 26th, President Benjamin Harrison visits South Riverside to see the tin bars from the Temescal Tin Mine. In the photo, President Harrison (wearing a top hat) can be seen standing next to a stack of tin bars.  

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1893 Riverside County is formed;

Temescal Tin Mine closes
 
1895 A reading room opens in the Gleason Building in South Riverside  
1896 South Riverside incorporates under the new name Corona  
1899 Woman’s Improvement Club is formed  

wic

1906 Carnegie Library opens at 8th & Main Street  

carnegielibrary

1907 Corona's first high school is built  

oldhisch

1911 Corona Lemon Foothill Company is formed;

Washington School opens

 washington school, grammar school

1912 Association Charities is formed by the Woman’s Improvement Club, later this organization will be renamed Settlement House.  
1913 September 9th, first Corona Road Race is held;
 
December 22nd, Marshal G.C. Alexander is murdered during a raid.
 

1913-race-postcard

1914 July 28th, World War I begins;

November 26th, second Corona Road Race is held.
 
1915 Exchange Lemon By-Products Company opens, it is the first plant of this type in the United States.  
1916 April 8th, the third & final Corona Road Race is held. Race car driver Bob Burman, his mechanic Erick Schrader and local resident W.H Speer are killed when Burman's Peugeot veers off the track.  
1917 April, President Wilson asks Congress for a declaration of war with Germany.  
1918 August 12, Pvt. Chester Husted, stationed in France, sends a letter to his family in Corona. Husted died in battle on October 5, 1918 near Blanc Mont, France. November 11, World War I ends.  

Husted-Letter_Page_1

1929 February 2nd, Lake Norconian Club opens, the luxury resort hosted celebrities such as Walt Disney, Bob Hope, and Shirley Temple;

October, a series of stock market crashes begin this will eventually lead to the Great Depression.
 
1936 Corona's Golden Jubilee  
1938 March, severe floods cause damage in Riverside & Orange Counties. The Corona Daily Independent continues to publish typed copies of the newspaper which staff deliver in boats.  

flood-38

1939 Construction of Prado Dam begins;

September 1, Germany invades Poland, World War II begins
 

prado

1940 Residents of Prado are officially evicted, the land where the town once stood becomes the Prado Reservoir

 

town of prado

1941 December 7th, Japan bombs Pearl Harbor & the United States officially enters World War II;

December 8th, the U.S. Navy begins the converting Lake Norconian Club into a military hospital
 
1943 December 27, Nettie Whitcomb burns the "For the White Race Only" sign at the municipal plunge, effectively ending segregation at the public pool in City Park  
1949 January, freezing temperatures threaten crops & snow blankets the City  

snow49

1958 April, Onias Acevedo is the first Hispanic to be elected to Corona City Council  
1962 Highway 91 is constructed through Corona;

Rena Parker is the first woman to run for Corona City Council, she was defeated.
 
1963 Rena Parker is the first woman appointed to Corona City Council to fill a vacancy  
1964 Rena Parker is the first woman to be elected to Corona City Council.  

CDI-Aaa-0222

1968 December 21, snow falls in Corona  
1969 January & February, flood waters threaten the city;
February, school segregation comes to an end
 

flood69

1971 Carnegie Library closes its doors and the new Library at 6th & Main Street opens.  
1980

April, David Felix becomes Corona's first Hispanic mayor

 

DavidFelixBecomesMayor

1982 Sunkist plant at Joy & the railroad tracks closes.  

sunkist plant

1984 Olympic torch is carried through Corona.  

1984torch

1989 I-15 through Corona is completed.  
1990 U.S. Census records Corona's population at 76,095  
1993 Current Corona Public Library building opens.  
1994 December 7, Corona's first majority-female City Council is inaugurated. The new City Counci included Jeff Bennett (Mayor), Andrea Puga (Mayor Pro Tem), Jan Rudman, Karen Stein, and Darrell Talbert  
1997 Corona's population reaches 104,339  
 

 

 

Local History Links

Corona Genealogical Society (CGS) 
CGS has published the scripts developed for the Sunnyslope Cemetery Stroll. The scripts contain biographical and historical information about many of Corona’s citizens and events. 

Fire Dept. History 
Created by Corona's Fire Department, this includes a list of Fire Chief's from 1897 to the present, photos of historical fire fighting equipment & engines and history of this city department.

Dept. of Water & Power History
An overview of the development of the utility, information about Corona's water supply and a list of department facts.

Pechanga Band of Luiseno Indians
The website highlights the history, culture and tribal government of the Luiseño. 

Corona Heritage Park & Museum 
The Park & Museum website includes a great deal of information about the organization as well as information about the Hotel del Rey (Victoria Hotel) and Corona pioneer Ida B. Frasier. 

Corona Historic Preservation Society (CHPS) 
CHPS website includes information about their home tour and Corona Beautiful as well as brief history of the society & urban renewal as well as a list of Corona sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

City of Corona Veterans Memorial
The City of Corona Veterans Memorial database is dedicated in honor and remembrance of all past, present, and future veterans of the United States military.
The veterans database allows users to create an on-line profile detailing a veteran’s military service. 

Speed Kings 
Hosted by Archive.org, this short film from 1913 features some of the race car drivers that participated in the Corona Road Races on Grand Boulevard.

Lake Norconian Club Foundation
A timeline and brief history of the luxury resort which became a naval hospital during World War II. 

Sherman Indian Museum 
The Museum's website features a brief history, timeline and photograph gallery of Riverside's Sherman Indian High School.

Asian American Riverside 
From the University of California, Riverside, this site features biographical sketches and historic sites that contribute to our knowledge of Asian American history in Riverside.

Evergreen Memorial Historic Cemetery 
The cemetery houses more than 27,000 individuals of local and national significance. The site includes biographical sketches of Riverside pioneers who are interred at Evergreen as well as images showcasing the art & architecture of the historic section of the cemetery.
 
Metropolitan Water District History